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Sinskaja (1969) even reports ancient Egyptian notes on coriander dating back to the time of the 5th dynasty, i.e. Coriander fruits were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, and were common in other graves in ancient Egypt at that time (Germer 1989).The library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal of the 7th century BC also contains documents referring to the cultivation of coriander (van Harten 1974).The higher the leaves are inserted, the more pinnate they are.Thus, the upper leaves are deeply incised with narrow lanceolate or even filiform-shaped blades.The germination is epigaeal and the plant has a tap root.The stem is more or less erect and sympodial, monochasial-branched, sometimes with several side branches at the basal node. The colour of the more or less ribbed stem is green and sometimes turns to red or violet during the flowering period.It is interesting to note that the ancient Egyptian literature mentions varieties of coriander coming from Asia (Reinhardt 1911).According to Van Harten (1974), the Jews must have known coriander before coming to Egypt (around 2000 BC), since the Hebrew name ‘gad’ occurs in the Old Testament.
Stoletova (1930) also reports on wild coriander from Armenia.During the flowering period the leaves sometimes turn red or violet. The umbel has two to eight primary rays, which are of different length, in such a way that the umbellets are located at the same level.They wither before the first fruits are ripe starting from the basal leaves. Two, three or more bracteols carry the umbellets with five to twenty secondary rays. In every umbel the peripheral umbellets, and in every umbellet the peripheral flowers are the first ones to flower. The central flowers of the umbellets are staminiferous or sometimes sterile.According to Prakash (1990), these references date as far back as 5000 BC. There are no references to coriander until the Egyptian period, and the Sanskrit language itself is not that old.Classical Greek authors such as Aristophanes, Theophrastus, Hippocrates and Dioscorides (van Harten 1974) and Latin authors such as Pliny and Columella also wrote about this crop.The flowers, which bloom from mid- to late summer, are small and white, formed in umbel-like clusters.The pale brown roots are fibrous and tapering, shaped like a carrot.In China, coriander is mentioned as a vegetable in a book on agriculture from the 5th century (Li 1969).The Persian name for coriander was used in China, which lends support to the hypothesis that the plant was introduced to China from this area (Ivanova and Stoletova 1990).The lower leaves are stalked, while the petiole of the upper leaves is reduced to a small, nearly amplexicaul leaf sheath.The leaves are green or light green and their underside often shiny waxy.